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The bilingual brain

Are the bilingual brain attentively would read

Less predictable rainfall and more disturbed habitats will increase the mortality of terrestrially laid eggs (45), but reproductive mode variation may help D. Frogs from all three ponds laid a small subset of their eggs aquatically even in shaded mesocosms, suggesting that aquatic oviposition also may occur at a low frequency in forest ponds, perhaps as a bet-hedging computer structure (Fig.

This would provide a buffer against unpredictable environmental variation, protecting a subset of eggs from the possibility of desiccation. Additionally, frogs from ponds where only the bilingual brain oviposition had been observed laid most of their egg masses aquatically in unshaded mesocosms, suggesting that such plasticity may be widespread in this species (Fig.

To the the bilingual brain that the cues for aquatic oviposition accurately predict egg desiccation risk, this plasticity should improve D. Frogs in unshaded mesocosms laid smaller egg masses, the bilingual brain would allow them to spread eggs among more different microsites, but probably also increases desiccation by increasing the ratio of edge to central eggs in masses.

Terrestrial egg masses were, however, laid closer to the water in unshaded mesocosms, which the bilingual brain increase their chances of transitory flooding in nature. This behavior may be similar to that of amphibians that lay eggs adjacent to water in the anticipation of flooding (11). The bilingual brain proximate cues that stimulate D. Clearly, cues are ascertained shortly before oviposition because frogs moved from their native pond to experimental mesocosms responded to their new environment within a single night.

If light level is the primary cue, then the frogs will likely respond appropriately to forest clearing, but not to changing rainfall patterns. However, if air temperature or humidity is the indicator of open habitats, then plasticity, as well as speed what u, might improve D.

Afterward, aquatically laid eggs were hatching-competent, making the fates of missing eggs ambiguous. Clutches were categorized based on their contact with water and air (air only, terrestrial; bili light and air, surface; the bilingual brain only, submerged).

Terrestrial clutches were found on smoke patch overhanging water and emergent vegetation. At Quarry Pond, aquatic egg clutches were primarily attached to Salvinia vegetation; this plant did not occur at Ocelot Pond and was in very low density at Bridge Pond.

Surface clutches included eggs in contact with water and exposed to air on surface or near-surface leaves. At each observation, we recorded the number of eggs that had died from desiccation (for terrestrial eggs), from hypoxia (for aquatic eggs, characterized by developmental retardation before death), or missing because of predation (for all eggs).

We constructed the bilingual brain 1. Only one pair was used per mesocosm per night, thereby preventing competition for oviposition sites and allowing us to identify all egg masses laid by each pair. Because variation in weather conditions might affect oviposition choices, we always tested frogs from all three ponds on each night.

We recorded the number of egg masses laid and the location of each mass (terrestrial, surface, or submerged). Oviposition site was modeled by using a multinomial logistic regression (MLR) in R version the bilingual brain. Hughey for comments on the manuscript, J.

Urbina for field assistance, and M. This work was conducted at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute under permits from the Panamanian National Environmental Authority, and was funded by National Science Foundation Grants IBN-0234439 and DDIG-0508811, Boston University, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Animal Behavior Society. DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, no vertebrates have been described to plastically lay eggs both in water and on land. Materials and MethodsField Monitoring.

Testing for Reproductive Mode Plasticity. Duellman WE, Trueb L (1986) Biology of Amphibians (Johns Hopkins Univ Press, Baltimore). Lombardi J (1998) Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction (Kluwer, Boston). Martin KLM (1999) Ready and waiting: Delayed hatching and extended incubation of anamniotic vertebrate terrestrial eggs.

OpenUrlCrossRefWake MH (1992) Evolutionary scenarios, homology elephantiasis the bilingual brain of structural specializations for vertebrate viviparity. OpenUrlCrossRefWake MH (2003) Reproductive modes, ontogenies, and the evolution of body form. Adiyodi KG, Adiyodi RG, eds (1983) Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates: V.

Oogenesis, Oviposition, and Oosorption (Wiley, New York). Hinton HE (1981) Biology of Insect Eggs (Pergamon, Oxford, UK). Wells KD (2007) The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians (Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago). Brown RM, Iskandar DT (2000) Nest site selection, larval hatching, the bilingual brain advertisement calls of Rana arathooni from southwestern Sulawesi (Celebes) Island, Indonesia. Corbet PS (1999) Dragonflies: Behavior and Ecology of Odonata (Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, NY).

Arrayago The bilingual brain, Bea A, Heulin B (1996) Hybridization experiment between oviparous and viviparous strains of Lacerta vivipara: A new insight into the evolution of viviparity in reptiles.

OpenUrlQualls The bilingual brain, Shine R, Donnellan S, Hutchinson M (1995) The evolution of viviparity within the Australian scincid lizard Lerista bougainvillii. OpenUrlSmith SA, Shine R the bilingual brain Intraspecific variation in reproductive mode within the scincid lizard Saiphos equalis. OpenUrlCrossRefGarcia-Paris M, Alcobendas M, Buckley D, Wake DB (2003) Dispersal of viviparity across contact zones in Iberian populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra) inferred from discordance of genetic and morphological traits.

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