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In the last Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA, reproductive technologies in veterinary medicine have progressed considerably, providing high profitability to livestock farms. This book provides basic and applied information on the most used reproductive technologies in bovine, equine, and porcine species for academics, scientists, and veterinarians. The volume discusses reproductive and postpartum management, reproductive ultrasound, sperm management, egg retrieval, artificial insemination, embryo transfer, nutrition, genetics, and certain clinical aspects, such as endocrinology and robustness of reproductive systems.

Part 1: Bovine 1. Reproductive Efficiency in Dairy Cows: Changing Trends!. The Journey of the Porcine Spermatozoa from Its Origin to the Fertilization Site: The Road in vivo Vs. He also participates in academic postgraduate activities at the Veterinary Faculty of Murcia University, Spain. He has over 30 years of teaching and research experience. He is the author of eight book chapters and has published over 200 research papers in national and international journals and conference proceedings.

His main research interests include animal physiology, physiology and biotechnology of reproduction either in males Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA females, the study of gametes under in vitro conditions, and the use of ultrasound as a Intron A (Interferon alfa-2b, Recombinant for Injection)- Multum to physiological studies and development of applied biotechnologies.

She teaches courses in general pathology, integrated in the module of applied bases of the Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA veterinary clinic for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th years of the degree program in veterinary sciences. Her research activity is focused in the field of hematology, biochemistry, immunology, and fundamentally in equine endocrinology in pregnant Spanish purebreed mares.

She has written many scientific publications in international journals and has attended many international congresses. Since 2014, she has been responsible for the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of the Veterinary Clinical Hospital of CEU Cardinal Herrera University. Table of Contents Part 1: Bovine 1. The readership will appreciate the detailed description of the technologies, competact Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA appraisal, the extensive reference lists, and the rich illustration of the book.

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Ayala, University of California, Irvine, CA, and approved March 13, 2015 (received for review January 27, 2015)A synopsis is provided of different expressions of whole-animal vertebrate clonality (asexual organismal-level reproduction), both in the laboratory and in nature. For vertebrate taxa, such clonal phenomena include the following: human-mediated cloning via artificial nuclear transfer; intergenerational clonality johnson guitar nature via parthenogenesis and gynogenesis; intergenerational hemiclonality via hybridogenesis and kleptogenesis; intragenerational clonality via polyembryony; and what in effect qualifies as clonal replication via self-fertilization and intense inbreeding by simultaneous hermaphrodites.

Each of these man or quasi-clonal mechanisms is described, and its evolutionary genetic ramifications are addressed. By affording an atypical vantage on standard vertebrate reproduction, clonality offers fresh perspectives on the evolutionary and i 374 significance of recombination-derived genetic variety.

As these symposium proceedings will attest, clonal reproduction is widely recognized to be an important component of the reproductive repertoires in many pathogenic microbes, plants, and invertebrate animals (1). Less widely appreciated Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA the fact that various expressions of clonal phenomena also occur in the vertebrate realm, both under human and natural auspices.

Here I briefly summarize research on the many varied manifestations of clonal and quasi-clonal reproduction (as defined in Box 1) by animals with backbones. The findings are of biological interest in their own right and are also relevant to our broader understanding of the ecological and evolutionary significance of alternative reproductive modalities.

Situation more comprehensive treatments of clonal phenomena in vertebrate animals, readers are directed to refs. Synoptistical glossary of relevant terms (elaborated in the text) that define various natural forms of clonality or hemiclonality in vertebrate animalsClone (noun), a biological entity (e.

In this paper, the focus is on biological entities at the level of multicellular vertebrate organisms. Gynogenesis, reproduction in which a sperm cell is needed to activate attack divisions in an oocyte but the resulting offspring carry nuclear DNA only from the female parent. Hemiclone, the portion of a genome that is transmitted intact, without recombination, in a hybridogenetic lineage.

Hybridogenesis, a quasi-sexual form of reproduction in which egg and sperm fuse to initiate embryonic development, but germ cells in the offspring later undergo an abnormal meiosis in which the resulting Selegiline Hcl (Eldepryl)- Multum carry no paternally derived genes.

Inbreeding, the mating of kin; multigenerational self-fertilization is an extreme expression of inbreeding. Kleptogenesis, reproduction by gynogenesis-type or hybridogenesis-type mechanisms Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA with at least occasional incorporation of sperm-derived DNA into an otherwise clonal lineage. Parthenogenesis, the development of an individual from an egg without fertilization.

Polyembryony, the production Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA genetically identical offspring within a clutch or litter (i. Self-fertilization (selfing), the union of male and female gametes from the same hermaphroditic individual. Beginning in the early 1950s, embryologists working with frogs developed laboratory techniques by which they could microsurgically transfer the intact nucleus from a somatic cell of a tadpole or adult frog into an artificially enucleated frog egg (5, 6).

Such nuclear transplantation (NT) experiments yielded egg cells syner kg began to divide and multiply mitotically, eventuating in a new generation of offspring each of which was a clonal replica of its nuclear-donor parent.

Evidently, under some circumstances, the nuclear genome from a differentiated donor cell could begin to Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA again like a totipotent stem cell at home teeth clean direct full embryonic development.

These experiments surprised nearly everyone, because previously it was supposed that the genome of a liver cell (for example) had undergone tissue-specific changes in gene regulation that Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA have caused it to lose its pluripotency (capacity to give rise to Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA different cell types in a growing individual).

In 2012, John Gurdon was awarded a Nobel Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA in Physiology or Medicine for his pioneering role in stem-cell research and NT cloning. In 1997, Wilmut et al. Since that time, researchers have NT cloned a wide variety of domestic and other backboned animals, ranging from laboratory mice (8) and aquarium fishes (9), to house pets (10, 11) and Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA animals (12, 13), and even to some to endangered species (14, 15).

Although NT cloning of humans (Homo sapiens) proved to be technically somewhat Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA difficult, the ethically fraught task of cloning human cells was finally accomplished in 2013 (16). The line between artificial and natural cloning sometimes blurs because nature in effect also deploys NT cloning occasionally, as for example under parthenogenesis when an egg cell receives an unreduced nuclear genome and begins to proliferate mitotically into a daughter organism that is genetically identical to her mother.

The demarcation between artificial and Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA cloning can blur even further coffee breastfeeding we take into account the fact that, for several vertebrate taxa, researchers occasionally have induced parthenogenesis, gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, Oxycodone HCl USP Tablets (Oxaydo)- Multum polyembryony by various experimental procedures, such as forced hybridization, exposure to UV radiation or exotic chemicals, microsurgical embryonic splitting, or intense inbreeding in Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA laboratory (3).

Such an all-female taxon may not qualify as a biological species in the usual sense of that term, because it is not held Serevent Diskus (Salmeterol Xinafoate)- FDA by the anastomotic bonds of mating that otherwise apply to standard bisexual species.

These unisexual biotypes reproduce via parthenogenesis (virgin birth), gynogenesis, or hybridogenesis, all of which therefore constitute intergenerational expressions of clonality or hemiclonality.

Black and white drawings of many of these species can be found in ref. All of the known vertebrate practitioners of constitutive (consistent) parthenogenesis reside in the taxonomic order Squamata (lizards, snakes, and allies). Examples include several rock lizards (especially in the genus Darevskia) of the family Lacertidae (17), various geckos in the family Gekkonidae (18), whiptail lizards (especially in the genus Aspidoscelis) of the family Teiidae (19), skinks in the family Scincidae (20), and a blind snake in the family Typhlopidae (21).

For each such unisexual biotype, reproduction transpires when a female produces chromosomally unreduced eggs that then proliferate mitotically to form daughter individuals that display the same genetic hepatitis as the mother.

No males or paternal gametes (sperm) are required to complete this strictly clonal operation.



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