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This has led the task to be used extensively in the study of the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of spatial learning and memory. On day 1 (visible platform trials), there is no difference between the VPA pussy kids and control groups in latency (Fig.

From this we assume the mice are able to see the flagged-platform and the cues in surrounding environment, and can swim acceptably. For days 2-5 (Day 1 to 4 of hidden platform trials) the example shows a difference in pussy kids escape latency (Fig. The probe trail results on the last day (Day 6) show that the number of times the mice traveled into the third quadrant, where the hidden platform was Diazepam Rectal Gel (Diazepam Rectal Gel)- Multum placed, was pussy kids greater with VPA treatment compared to control (Fig.

These data indicate that VPA treatment significantly improves the memory deficits seen in APP23 mice. Pussy kids setup for the Morris Water Maze visible platform test day.

The pool is shielded from the experimenter using room dividers. Spatial cues are located on the walls, and maybe placed on the interior of the pool, above the water surface, if desired. The pool is pussy kids with clear water, with the platform located 1cm above the surface. A flag has been placed on pussy kids platform to enhance visibility. The pool is viewed from above by a black and white analog tracking camera with a RTV24 Digitizer.

Several zones are defined within the software pussy kids the total pool is divided into 4 quadrants. A fifth, platform zone Unasyn (Ampicillin and Sulbactam)- FDA entered which can vary across trials, pussy kids five possible locations: NW, NE, SW, SE, or Center.

A calibration line (ticked line across center) is added to allow the software to convert pixel distances into physical distances. Representative results for the Morris Water Maze. On day 6, there is no platform and a single trial. The starting direction for day 6 is farthest from the previous platform location (SW) so that the mice must travel some distance before entering the previously learned platform quadrant.

Age, sex, species, and strain differences influence MWM performance (8). Studies indicate that aged mice have poor performance in the MWM, while male rodents perform better than females; additionally, floating is pussy kids pronounced in mice than rats (9, 10). Therefore, these elements should be equated across all tests.

Evidence also suggests pussy kids stressed animals perform more poorly pussy kids the MWM (11), thus environmental factors which may cause stress, such as temperature, light, and noise, should be monitored and kept constant over the task. All experiments were conducted in accordance with The University of British Columbia Animal Care and Use committee and CIHR guidelines.

To learn more about our GDPR policies click here. Your access has now expired. If you have any questions, pussy kids do not hesitate to reach out to our customer success team. Preparation Equipment preparation Obtain a circular pool with a diameter of 150cm and a depth Epinastine HCl Ophthalmic Solution (Elestat)- FDA 50cm (Fig.

If using black mice, a white pool should be used; if using white mice, a black pool should be Cordarone IV (Amiodarone Intravenous)- FDA. Arrange the room such that the animal being tested cannot see the experimenter during testing.

This can be accomplished with drapes or room dividers. Fill the pool with water until the platform is 1cm above the water surface.

Depending on the water temperature this may take one to three pussy kids, or alternatively hot water can be added to speed up the equilibration. Software preparation Calibrate the pool in the computer software so the camera can create physical distance information from pixel-based information. Divide the pool into 4 pussy kids. Specify the platform zone as a variable zone which can change with each trial.

Save the calibration and use it for the pussy kids test days. Set the maximum trial time as 60 sec. If the mouse finds the platform before this time, program the software to stop the trial when the platform is found.

Specify the program to begin tracking automatically, when the experimenter exits the testing area. Track path length, escape pussy kids, and time spent in each quadrant. Day 1: Visible Platform Computer Program Load the pool calibration into the tracking software. Create 5 trials, with an inter-trial interval appropriate for your experiment. Program the platform location and starting direction to differ with each trial. See Table 1 for an example protocol. Testing procedure Transfer the mice from their housing facility to the behavior room.

Keep the mice in an area pussy kids they cannot see the pool or spatial cues. Let them adjust to the new environment for at least 30 minutes pussy kids testing.

Place a flag on the platform to increase its visibility. To begin testing, lift mouse from the home cage by the base of the tail. Support the mouse as you bring it to the testing area. Lifting the mouse by the base of the tail, gently place the mouse into the water, facing the edge of the pool. Quickly leave the testing area. If the mouse finds the pussy kids before the 60 sec cut-off, allow the mouse to stay on the platform for 5 seconds then return it to its home cage.

If the mouse does not find the platform, place the mouse on the platform and allow it pussy kids stay there for 20 pussy kids before returning it to its home cage. Repeat for all mice in the trail. Begin each subsequent trial with a different platform location and starting direction, pussy kids you have programmed into your software. When testing is pussy kids, return the mice to their housing facility.

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