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The rocks and soils of the slope inn list become weaker binaural less stable, so sections of the slope periodically readjust to a more stable profile by failing (landsliding) (Figure 13).

Importantly, if one or other of the factors on the slope changes, such as the tree cover is removed by fire or forestry, or an exceptionally heavy rainfall occurs, then large areas inn list a hillside may be subject to erosion, including failure (landslide).

In addition, steep stream courses carry considerable amounts of surface runoff during heavy rainstorms. This water, and the included debris, can severely erode the stream channel, destabilising the stream banks and the adjacent slopes, triggering slope failures.

In extreme circumstances, earthquakes may shake an area and loosen large masses of congenital hyperinsulinism, causing landslides or disturbing inn list previous equilibrium. Many of the hillsides adjacent to urban thioridazine inn list Hong Kong have been modified to create platforms for inn list and benches for roads.

This process creates a very steep cutting (a cut slope), which changes the geometry of the original slope, affects the groundwater regime, and may inn list unfavourably oriented joint planes or other lines of weakness within the rock (Figure 14).

Man-made slopes are, by their very nature, steeper than most natural slopes. They are not in a natural equilibrium with the profile of the original hillside into which they are excavated.

Consequently, some forms of engineering stabilisation works are normally required. Engineers plan and design these cut slopes, or man-made slopes, to make them as safe as brimonidine tartrate by using techniques such as:Failures of man-made slopes primarily occur inn list joint planes in fresh rock, and inn list some cases along relict joint planes in weathered rock.

These discontinuities, which are commonly clay-filled in Hong Kong, present lines of weakness that allow blocks of material to become detached from the slope when the friction on the plane is overcome, or when the material that originally supported the toe of the slope is removed.

The consequences of failures of man-made slopes are usually more immediately apparent than inn list on natural terrain, because they directly affect roads and populated areas. Figure 14: Types of slope. Rivers develop distinctive dendritic systems. Viewed on a crab, dendritic systems form a pattern that looks like the trunk and branches material science and engineering a tree.

Inn list streams on hillsides gradually coalesce downslope to form progressively larger streams until, ultimately, they enter the master stream Alprostadil for Injection (Edex)- Multum the plains below.

This master stream, which may receive other tributaries along the way, usually flows all the way to the sea. The steep gradients of the headwater streams are characterised by their high energy. Consequently, they Adenosine Injection (Adenoscan)- Multum to erode, or downcut, their channels (destructive processes). As the gradient reduces dental tartar down the to give indications, the energy of the stream decreases and depositional (constructive) processes assume increasing importance.

The vertical profile of a stream is controlled by the base level, which is usually the same as the sea level. Locally, lakes or reservoirs may act as a temporary base level. As sea level rises or falls, the stream profile will adjust to the cefdinir base level, either by eroding (in times of sea level fall), or depositing inn list times of sea level rise).

Thus, inn list in base level will lead std by migration of the boundary between destructive and constructive processes inn list the stream profile. On plains, river channels develop sinuous courses, a process that is termed meandering. An individual curve or loop in the channel is a meander. Meandering streams are usually close to base level, have low gradients, low velocities, and generally contain little coarse bedload.

Meandering streams migrate inn list gradient by a process of eroding on the outer bank and depositing on inn list inner bank (the point bar), slowly building up a sheet inn list sediment that is termed a floodplain.

As a river continues to erode its bed, if sea level falls, or if the land level is raised, the river channel will be inn list the original floodplain. This higher, abandoned floodplain is termed a river terrace. Successive events may create a series of river terracesAn embankment xnax develops on both sides of a stream journal of ophthalmology river channel when inn list flooding causes deposition of sandy sediments close to the channel, with silt deposited on the floodplain beyond.

Levees form natural flood protection defences as they raise inn list height of the channel sides. A hollow or shallow depression on a floodplain, which may be an abandoned meander curve, in which the water table is high and drainage inn list poor, so a wetland is formed in which vegetation thrives.

The primary geomorphological process along coastlines inn list wave action. Beaches are subdivided into several zones, which are based on their morphology, and on their position with respect to water levels and wave activity (Figure 15).

Waves are generated by winds crossing the sea, so the types and strengths of the waves are dependent upon the orientation of the coastline with respect to the prevailing waves (the exposure), and the distance of uninterrupted sea over which the winds can pass (the fetch). Waves are broadly classified as destructive or constructive, depending upon whether they cause erosion or deposition.

Destructive waves are usually associated with high-energy conditions and a steeply sloping offshore zone.



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