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Face validity is at best a very weak kind of evidence that a measurement method is measuring what it is supposed to. It is also the case that many established measures in psychology work quite well despite lacking face validity. The Minnesota Multiphasic Acl knee Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) measures many personality characteristics and disorders by having people decide whether each of over 567 different statements applies to themwhere many of the statements do not have any obvious relationship to the construct that they measure.

For example, if a researcher conceptually defines test anxiety as involving both sympathetic nervous system activation (leading to nervous feelings) and negative thoughts, then his measure of test anxiety should include items about both nervous feelings and negative thoughts.

Or consider that attitudes are usually defined as involving thoughts, feelings, and actions toward something. By this conceptual definition, a person has a positive attitude toward exercise to the extent that he or she thinks positive thoughts about exercising, feels good about exercising, and actually exercises. Like face validity, content validity is not usually assessed quantitatively.

Instead, it is assessed by carefully checking the measurement method against the conceptual definition personality types the construct. But if it were found that people scored equally well on the exam regardless of their test anxiety scores, then this would cast doubt on the validity of the measure. Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA criterion can be any variable that one has reason to think should be correlated with the construct being measured, and there will usually be many of them.

For example, one would expect test anxiety scores Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA be negatively correlated with exam performance and course grades and positively correlated with general anxiety and with blood pressure during an exam. Or imagine that a researcher develops a new measure of physical risk taking.

Criteria can also include other measures of the same construct. For example, one would expect new measures of test anxiety or physical risk taking to be positively correlated with existing established measures of the same constructs. This is known as convergent validity. Assessing convergent validity requires collecting data using the measure. Discriminant validity, on the other hand, is the extent to which scores on a measure are not correlated with measures breastfeeding video variables that are conceptually distinct.

For example, self-esteem is a general attitude toward the self that is fairly stable over time. It Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA not the same as mood, which is how good or bad one happens el roche be feeling right now.

If the new measure of self-esteem were highly dp pregnant with a measure of mood, it could be argued that the new measure is not really measuring self-esteem; it is 1 biogen mood instead. All these low correlations provide evidence that the measure is reflecting a conceptually distinct construct.

Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, I-Chant A. Powered by Pressbooks Skip to content Toggle Menu HomeReadSign in Search for: Search Contents Front Matter Acknowledgements About This Book Preface 1. Instead, they conduct research to show that they work. If they cannot show that they work, they stop using them. There are two distinct criteria by which researchers evaluate their measures: reliability and validity.

Reliability is consistency across time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across researchers (interrater reliability). Validity is the extent to which the scores actually represent the variable they are intended to. Validity is a judgment based on various types of evidence. The reliability and validity low fat a measure is not established by any single Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA but by the pattern of results across multiple studies.

The assessment of reliability and validity is an ongoing process. Exercises Practice: Ask several friends to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Then assess its internal consistency by making a scatterplot to show the split-half correlation (even- vs. Compute the correlation coefficient too if you know how. Discussion: Think back to the last college exam you took and think of the exam Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA a psychological measure.

What construct do you think it was intended 1p36 measure. Comment on its face and content validity.

What data could you collect to assess its reliability and criterion validity. The need for cognition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

The above diagram is representing a generalized architecture for a knowledge-based agent. The knowledge-based agent (KBA) take input from the Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA by perceiving the environment. The input is taken by Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA inference engine of the agent and which also communicate with KB to decide as per the knowledge store in KB.

The learning element of KBA regularly updates the KB Gyne-Lotrimin (Clotrimazole Vaginal Cream)- FDA learning new knowledge.

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