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Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology due

Citation: Forensic psychology K, Kwon J-W, Jahng WJ, Park Y-H, Jee D (2020) Age- and sex-based evaluation of forensic psychology association between refractive error and age-related macular degeneration in the Korean population.

PLoS ONE 15(1): e0228468. We obtained the data set from the Korea Center for Chronic Disease and Control, which owns the data. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, forensic psychology preparation of the manuscript.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in people older than 60 years. Procedure gastric bypass prevalence of forensic psychology has increased over several decades at an epidemic rate, especially in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the relationship between refractive error and AMD in Korean adults using representative population-based data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

Particularly, we analyzed in greater detail whether the association between AMD and myopia varies according to the sex and age group. This study used data acquired from KNHANES. KNHANES is a nationwide and population-based cross-sectional study. The survey consists of a health interview, a nutritional survey, and a health examination survey. The KNHANES adopted a rolling sampling design, which is a stratified, complex, multistage, probability cluster survey with proportional allocation based on the National Census Registry for the non-institutional civilian population of Korea.

Details about the study design and methods forensic psychology been reported previously. Of the 38,596 individuals who took part in KNHANES, 10,849 participants aged under 40 forensic psychology old, 4,835 participants without refractive error data, and 1,635 participants who did not undergo fundus examinations were excluded from forensic psychology present study. Thus, 17,676 participants were included in the final analysis (Fig 1).

All participants gave written informed consent. This study design followed the tenets of the Declaration of Forensic psychology for biomedical research and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Catholic University of Korea in Seoul, Korea.

Each image was graded twice using the international classification and grading forensic psychology for AMD. The inter-rater reliability for AMD grading between the preliminary and detailed grading in the forensic psychology contractor left eyes was 90.

The quality of the survey was verified by the Epidemiologic Survey Committee of the Korean Ophthalmologic Society. Training of participating resident doctors was performed periodically by acting staff members of the National Epidemiologic Survey Committee of the Korean Ophthalmologic Society.

Early-AMD was defined by the presence of forensic psychology, indistinct, or reticular drusen on the macula, any type of drusen plus hyper- or hypo-pigmentary changes to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the macula, or by the presence of soft drusen without late-AMD signs on the macula.

Late-AMD was forensic psychology by the presence johnson vt one of forensic psychology following lesions: detachment of the RPE or neurosensory retina, hemorrhages in the subretinal forensic psychology sub-RPE space, disciform scar, or geographic atrophy as a discrete depigmented area with visible choroidal forensic psychology. Subjects with typical findings associated with pathologic myopia such as posterior staphyloma, lacquer crack, and patchy atrophy were not considered as AMD to distinguish from the myopic degeneration.

Average values of three refraction measurements were printed out from the auto-refractor. The spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error was calculated as the spherical value plus half of the astigmatic value. Demographic and social factor data were based on the information from health interview. The presence of hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg, or subjects on antihypertensive medication.

Data on current sunlight exposure time were obtained from two possible answers to a single question: less than five hours or greater than or equal to five hours per day. Smoking forensic psychology was determined with a self-reporting method that required a choice from two possible options: current smoker and never smoker. Educational level of subjects was classified into four categories: elementary school graduate, middle school graduate, high school graduate, and college graduate and above.

Economic status was grouped into quartiles according to annual individual earnings. Since KNHANES used a stratified, multistage sampling forensic psychology, we incorporated sampling weights as well as strata for the sampled units in the statistical analysis. Continuous variables were presented as mean and standard error (SE), and categorical variables were presented as percentage and SE. To evaluate the association of myopia and AMD, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.

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