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ConZip (Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules)- FDA

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The journal provided the discipline information of the papers (Fig 1). There are 3 first level disciplines, viz. So the papers can be classified according to their discipline information.

Some papers are only classified by the first level disciplines. For those papers, we considered their second level discipline to be the same as their first level one. Hence we added the first level disciplines into the set of second level disciplines.

There are 3007 papers belonging to more than one second level discipline. Those papers can be considered to be interdisciplinary papers. The discipline information of the papers will be used to build a network describing the interdisciplinary relationships between disciplines in Section 3. Many papers have used mathematical techniques, but are not classified into applied mathematics. Thus, we should analyze the contents of the papers.

The dictionary contains 31,542 words (S1 Text). Those words belong to the lexicon of NLTK, which includes the English WordNet. Based on the dictionary, the document-term biosimilars for the corpus is generated, in which the rows correspond to the papers in the corpus and columns correspond to the words.

Together with the publication dates of the papers, the quarterly numbers of the papers containing certain words are extracted for analyzing the relationships of algorithms to certain research paradigms and transdisciplinary topics in Section 4. Based on the discipline information of the corpus, a network describing the connections among disciplines is ConZip (Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules)- FDA (The discipline network, Fig 2), in which pregnant orgasm nodes are the second level disciplines, and two disciplines are connected if there is a paper belonging to them both.

The network is connected, which means no discipline is isolated. The edges of the network can be assigned weights: the number of interdisciplinary papers between two connected disciplines. The network data is provided in S1 Network. It contains 42 nodes and 354 edges. Two disciplines are connected if there is a paper in PNAS 1999-2013 belonging to them simultaneously. Those indicators also show the small-world property ConZip (Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules)- FDA the discipline network.

The interdisciplinary breadth and centrality of a discipline can be quantitatively described by the degree and betweenness centrality of the corresponding node in the unweighted discipline network respectively. The degree of a node is the number of nodes connecting to it. The betweenness centrality relates to the number of shortest paths from all nodes to all others ConZip (Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules)- FDA pass through that node.

If item transfer through the network follows the shortest paths, a node with high betweenness centrality has a large influence on the transfer behavior. The interdisciplinary strength of a discipline can be expressed by the number of the interdisciplinary papers involving with that discipline, namely the degree of the corresponding node in the weighted discipline network. PageRank also gives a rough estimate of the importance of nodes (receive more connections from other nodes) in a given ConZip (Tramadol Hydrochloride Extended-release Capsules)- FDA. Hence the interdisciplinary breadth and strength of a discipline can be expressed by the PageRank value of the corresponding node in the unweighted and weighted discipline network respectively.

The degree, PageRank and betweenness centrality of applied mathematics in the unweighted network are the highest (Table 1).

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