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The proximate cues that stimulate D. Clearly, cues are ascertained shortly before oviposition because frogs moved from their native pond to experimental mesocosms responded to bayer buy new environment within a single night.

If light level is the primary cue, then the frogs will likely respond appropriately to forest clearing, but not to changing rainfall patterns. However, if air temperature or humidity is the indicator of open habitats, then plasticity, as well as bet-hedging, might improve D. Afterward, aquatically laid eggs were hatching-competent, making the fates of missing eggs ambiguous. Clutches were categorized based on their contact with water and air (air only, terrestrial; water and air, surface; water only, submerged).

Terrestrial clutches were found on vegetation bayer buy water and emergent vegetation. At Quarry Pond, aquatic egg clutches were primarily attached to Salvinia vegetation; this plant did not occur at Ocelot Pond and was in very low density at Bridge Pond. Surface clutches included eggs in contact with water and exposed to air on surface or near-surface leaves.

At each observation, we recorded the number of eggs that had died from desiccation (for terrestrial bayer buy, from hypoxia (for aquatic eggs, characterized by developmental retardation before death), or missing because of predation (for all eggs). We constructed twelve 1. Only one pair was used per mesocosm per night, thereby preventing competition for oviposition sites and allowing us to identify all egg masses laid by each pair.

Because variation in bayer buy conditions might affect oviposition choices, we always tested frogs from all three ponds on each night. We recorded the number of egg masses laid and the location of each mass (terrestrial, surface, or submerged). Oviposition site was modeled by using a bayer buy logistic regression (MLR) in R fears bayer buy. Hughey for comments on the manuscript, J.

Urbina for field assistance, and M. This work was conducted at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute under permits from the Panamanian National Environmental Authority, and was funded by National Science Foundation Grants IBN-0234439 and DDIG-0508811, Boston University, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Animal Behavior Society.

DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, no vertebrates bayer buy been described to plastically lay eggs both in water and on land.

Materials and MethodsField Monitoring. Testing for Reproductive Mode Plasticity. Duellman WE, Trueb L (1986) Biology of Amphibians (Johns Hopkins Univ Press, Baltimore). Lombardi J (1998) Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction (Kluwer, Boston).

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Corbet PS (1999) Dragonflies: Behavior and Ecology of Bayer buy (Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, NY). Arrayago MJ, Bea A, Heulin B (1996) Hybridization experiment between oviparous and viviparous strains of Lacerta bayer buy A new insight into the evolution of viviparity in reptiles. OpenUrlQualls CP, Shine R, Donnellan S, Hutchinson M (1995) The evolution of viviparity within the Australian scincid bayer buy Lerista bougainvillii.

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OpenUrlCrossRefGarcia-Paris M, Alcobendas M, Buckley D, Wake DB (2003) Dispersal of viviparity across contact zones in Iberian populations of fire salamanders (Salamandra) inferred from bayer buy of genetic and morphological bayer buy. OpenUrlBuckley D, Alcobendas M, Garcia-Paris M, Wake MH (2007) Heterochrony, cannibalism, and the evolution of viviparity in Salamandra salamandra.

OpenUrlPubMedInger RF, Stuebing RB (1997) A Field Guide bayer buy the Frogs of Borneo (Natural History Publications and Science and Technology Unit, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia). Bayer buy EH bayer buy The amphibian fauna of Thailand. OpenUrlFaivovich J, et al. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 6:228. OpenUrlDuellman WE (2001) The Hylid Frogs bayer buy Middle America (Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca, NY). Savage JM (2002) The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica (Univ of Chicago Press, Chicago).

Seymour RS, Roberts JD (1991) Bayer buy respiration and oxygen distribution in foamy and nonfoamy egg masses of the frog Limnodynastes tasmaniensis. OpenUrlWatts PC, Buley KR, Boardman Bayer buy, Ciofi C, Gibson R (2006) Parthenogenesis in komodo dragons. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedChapman DD, et transplantation hair. Malkmus R, Manthey U, Vogel G, Hoffman Bayer buy, Kosuch J (2002) Amphibians and Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo) (ARG Gantner, Ruggell, Liechtenstein).

Utsunomiya Y, Utsunomiya T (1983) On the eggs and larvae of frog species occurring in the Ryukyu archipelago. OpenUrlKuramoto M (1972) Bayer buy amphibians of Iriomote of the Ryukyu Islands: Ecological and zoogeographical notes.

OpenUrlBrown WC, Alcala AC (1994) Philippine frogs of the family Rhacophoridae. OpenUrlPubMedMartens A (1991) Plasticity of mate-guarding and oviposition behaviour in Zygonyx natalensis (Martin) (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). OpenUrlDuellman WE (1978) The Biology of an Equatorial Herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador (Univ of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, KS).

Haddad Bayer buy, Prado CPA Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride (Xyzal)- FDA Reproductive modes in frogs and their unexpected diversity in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. OpenUrlCrossRefResetarits WJ (1996) Oviposition site choice and life history bayer buy. OpenUrlCrossRefForester DC, Lykens DV (1988) The ability of wood uroxatral eggs to withstand prolonged terrestrial strandingAn empirical study.

OpenUrlCrossRefMarco A, Blaustein AR (1998) Egg gelatinous matrix protects Ambystoma gracile embryos from prolonged exposure to air. OpenUrlLips KR (2001) Reproductive trade-offs and bet-hedging in Hyla calypsa, a Neotropical treefrog.

OpenUrlCrossRefHawley TJ (2006) Embryonic development and mortality in Hyalinobatrachium pulveratum (Anura: Centrolenidae) of south-western Costa Rica. OpenUrlCrossRefWarkentin KM (2000) Wasp predation and wasp-induced hatching of red-eyed treefrog eggs.

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