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The proximate cues that stimulate D. Clearly, cues are ascertained shortly before oviposition because frogs moved from their native pond to experimental mesocosms responded to bayer buy new environment within a single night.

If light level is the primary cue, then the frogs will likely respond appropriately to forest clearing, but not to changing rainfall patterns. However, if air temperature or humidity is the indicator of open habitats, then plasticity, as well as bet-hedging, might improve D. Afterward, aquatically laid eggs were hatching-competent, making the fates of missing eggs ambiguous. Clutches were categorized based on their contact with water and air (air only, terrestrial; water and air, surface; water only, submerged).

Terrestrial clutches were found on vegetation bayer buy water and emergent vegetation. At Quarry Pond, aquatic egg clutches were primarily attached to Salvinia vegetation; this plant did not occur at Ocelot Pond and was in very low density at Bridge Pond. Surface clutches included eggs in contact with water and exposed to air on surface or near-surface leaves.

At each observation, we recorded the number of eggs that had died from desiccation (for terrestrial bayer buy, from hypoxia (for aquatic eggs, characterized by developmental retardation before death), or missing because of predation (for all eggs). We constructed twelve 1. Only one pair was used per mesocosm per night, thereby preventing competition for oviposition sites and allowing us to identify all egg masses laid by each pair.

Because variation in bayer buy conditions might affect oviposition choices, we always tested frogs from all three ponds on each night. We recorded the number of egg masses laid and the location of each mass (terrestrial, surface, or submerged). Oviposition site was modeled by using a bayer buy logistic regression (MLR) in R fears bayer buy. Hughey for comments on the manuscript, J.

Urbina for field assistance, and M. This work was conducted at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute under permits from the Panamanian National Environmental Authority, and was funded by National Science Foundation Grants IBN-0234439 and DDIG-0508811, Boston University, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Animal Behavior Society.

DiscussionTo the best of our knowledge, no vertebrates bayer buy been described to plastically lay eggs both in water and on land.

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